January until March are installation ceremony months in Philippine Masonry. Installation programmes of appointed and elected officers indicate Masonic Year date of 6016 which is equivalent to year ca. 4000 BCE- 2016 AD.
What is the significance of circa 4000 BCE in Freemasonry? From the Egyptian secret of the Precession of the Equinox, this was the year of the Age of Taurus (ca. 4000-3100 BCE). In astrological event, Taurus is ruled by planet Venus the Goddess or Inanna the female Deity.
As above so below, the significance is the universal union of the male and the female principle which is also the principal law of creation and the esoteric belief of mystic freemasons – the foundation of modern masonry.
Square and Compass union is an allegory of sacred sexuality, holy marriage or hieros gamos..the secret of creation.
Age of Taurus ca. 4000 BCE
In Ancient Mesopotamia, the most prominent female deity was Inanna. As early as the Uruk period (ca. 4000–3100 BCE), Inanna was associated with the city of Uruk. The famous Uruk Vase (found in a deposit of cult objects of the Uruk III period) depicts a row of naked men carrying various objects, bowls, vessels, and baskets of farm products, and bringing sheep and goats, to a female figure facing the ruler. This figure was ornately dressed for a divine marriage and attended by a servant. The female figure holds the symbol of the two twisted reeds of the doorpost, signifying Inanna behind her, while the male figure holds a box and stack of bowls, the later cuneiform sign signifying En, or high priest of the temple. Especially in the Uruk period, the symbol of a ring-headed doorpost is associated with Inanna.
In this period, human connection to the higher being is being practiced through divine feminine or goddess. A goddess is a female deity with supernatural powers in polytheistic religions. Goddesses most often have female characteristics that are apotheosized in their pure form, and some cases they have rather general for all humans characteristics, both men, and women, like Sophia, and other times they can have characteristics that are rather not specific for women like a battle and hunting success (Artemis). Thus while they have been, are and may be associated with as wide a range of phenomena as male deities, including war, creation and sometimes destruction (and death), life-giving, healing and compassion, they have been especially associated with beauty, love, motherhood and in prehistoric religions and also later with the Earth, fertility (Mother-goddess cult in prehistoric times).
Holy Marriage Ritual or Sacred Sexuality
The concept of the sacred marriage originated with the ancients, who typically enacted annual ceremonies to bring fertility and prosperity. The Greeks called it Hieros Gamos. Many mythologies describe it as a marriage between heaven and earth. In ancient Egypt, the marriage between Isis and Osiris was considered the sacred union of heaven and earth, of yin and yang, of the feminine and the masculine principles.
Holy Marriage is known as hierogamy or Hieros Gamos, is a sexual ritual that acts out or simulates a marriage between a goddess and a god, especially when enacted in a symbolic rite where human participants assume the identity of the deities. The ritual symbolises the concordance of the female and male in the ceremony. The notion of Hieros gamos does not assume an actual performance in ritual because it can also be enacted in a purely imitative or mythological context.
In Hinduism, Devadasi tradition is a religious tradition in which girls are “married” and dedicated to a deity (deva or devi) or to a Hindu temple and includes performance aspects such as those that take place in the temple as well as in the courtly and mujuvani [Telugu] or home context. Originally, in addition to this and taking care of the temple and performing rituals, these women learned and practiced Sadir, Odissi, and other classical Indian artistic traditions and enjoyed a high social status. Ancient Near East
Sacred prostitution was common in the Ancient Near East as a form of “Sacred Marriage” or hieros gamos between the king of a Sumerian city-state and the High Priestess of Inanna, the Sumerian goddess of love, fertility, and warfare. Along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers there were many shrines and temples dedicated to Inanna. The temple of Eanna, meaning “house of heaven” in Uruk was the greatest of these. The temple housed Nadītu, priestesses of the goddess. The high priestess would choose for her bed a young man who represented the shepherd Dumuzid, consort of Inanna, in a hieros gamos or sacred marriage, celebrated during the annual Duku ceremony, just before Invisible Moon, with the autumn Equinox (Autumnal Zag-mu Festival).
In Greek mythology the classic instance is the wedding of Zeus and Hera celebrated at the Heraion of Samos, and doubtless its architectural and cultural predecessors. Some scholars would restrict the term to reenactments, but most accept its extension to real or simulated union in the promotion of fertility: such an ancient union of Demeter with Iasion, enacted in a thrice-plowed furrow, a primitive aspect of a sexually-active Demeter reported by Hesiod, is sited in Crete, origin of much early Greek myth. The brief fertilizing mystical union engenders Dionysus, and doubled unions, of a god and of a mortal man on one night, result, through telegony, in the semi-divine nature of Greek heroes such as Theseus and Heracles among others.
If the ‘Sacred Marriage Rite’ ever involved human participants the priestess, acting as Inanna, would have engaged in ritual copulation with the king (Stuckey, 2005). In the Sumerian version of the ‘Sacred Marriage’ the High Priestess is known as Entu and, as Inanna personal and actual is identity
The so-called ‘sacred prostitute’ or temple priestess was associated with the religions of the Great Mother goddess in ancient times. These temple priestesses became the representatives in physical form of the Goddess and entered into sacred sexual rituals with male worshippers, and this provides evidence of the ‘sacred feminine’ then and now. Sacred or temple ‘prostitution’ was supposedly performed in ancient temples as a fertility ritual that involved the practice of sacred sexual intercourse as part of the religious worship of the Goddess. However, with regard to temple prostitution, the sequence is at best doubtful because the “…term ‘sacred prostitution’ for any and all sexual practices connected with temple service keeps us from understanding the meaning of such practices for contemporaries. (Lerner, 1986).
It becomes a necessity to distinguish between ‘cultic sexual service’ and commercial prostitution. Cultic sexual service by men and women may date back to the Neolithic age, to various cults of the Mother Goddess, or the so-called Great Goddess in her many manifestations (Gimbutas, 1982). Unfortunately, many scholars do not attempt to differentiate between ritual sex as a form of worship, and the use of sexual favors for pay (Henshaw, 1994). Ritual sex would not have been prostitution, even if the act produced an offering to the temple, because it was regarded and performed as a mutually accepted act of worship. Many ritual practices in the ancient Eastern Mediterranean focussed on promoting the fecundity of the land. In early Mesopotamia the ‘Sacred Marriage’ of Hieros gamos, with its focus on fertility, could have possibly involved a ‘sacred prostitute whereby “…cultic prostitution is a practice involving the female and at times the male devotees of fertility deities, who presumably dedicated their earnings to their deity.” (Yamuchi, 1973). Furthermore, the motives of the ‘Sacred Marriage’ rite in Mesopotamia were where the king had sexual congress with a ‘temple prostitute’ who performed, using a form of role play, as an earthly receptacle for the goddess.
Mesopotamian titles for these priestesses or ‘sacred prostitutes’ have been translated and include naditu, qadishtu, and entu (Odens, 2000). However, in general, naditu priestesses were of high status and were expected to be chaste (Henshaw, 1994), and there appears to be no actual evidence that the duties of a naditu included having ritual or cultic sexual intercourse. The title of qadishtu meant “…holy, consecrated, or set apart woman” (Odens, 2000), and derives from the same root as the Hebrew deshah, which implies the qadishtu was not indeed a cultic prostitute. Translation of ‘sacred or cultic prostitute’ as deshah or deshut , which is feminine single and plural, with qadesh and deshim the masculine singular and plural. This translation was imposed by ancient Hebrew priests to deliberately associate deshah the sacred or consecrated woman with zonah or common prostitute. Most Mesopotamian priestesses were expected to be chaste with the one exception being the entu whom the Sumerians called Lady Deity or Lady Who is Goddess (Frayne, 1985; Henshaw, 1994). Sumerian and Akkadian entu were highly regarded and socially superior priestesses who were distinguished with special ceremonial attire, who owned property, and initiated the Hieros gamos ceremony with priests and kings (Dening, 1996). The naditu served as priestesses in the temples of Inanna in the ancient city of Erech or Uruk. Recruited from high ranking families they were expected to remain childless. The Sumerian word Nin, Eres in Akkadian, means Lady, the Sumerian word Nin-Dingur means Divine Lady. In Sumerian epic texts such as Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, the Nu-Gig were priestesses in temples dedicated to Inanna. The qadishtu served in the temples of the Sumerian goddess Qetesh, and the ishtaritsu specialised in dancing, music and singing in the temples of Ishtar.
Babylon has often been, somewhat inaccurately and emotionally, equated with and denigrated as the home of sacred prostitution. Nonetheless, often associated with the Sumerian goddess Inanna is the great goddess of Babylon called Ishtar. Ishtar who possessed two main functions or attributes. Firstly she was the goddess of love and sexuality, and secondly she was a fierce war goddess who was sometimes shown riding on a lion. Two of her epithets were Mother of Harlots and the Great Whore of Babylon. The Mesopotamian city of Erech or Uruk was known as, and referred to as, the town of sacred courtesans. Temples to Ishtar were inhabited supposedly by sacred prostitutes and priestesses, called ishtartu or Joy-maidens, dedicated to the service of the goddess. Their sexuality was seen as belonging to Ishtar and used only in sacred rites undertaken in her worship. These women were not common prostitutes which were known in ancient Babylon as harimtu. Ishtar did not differentiate in bestowing her sexual favours and honoured the sexual act howsoever and with whomsoever it was performed. From The Courtship of Inanna and Dumuzi we find Inanna exclaiming “who will plough my vulva?” and “Who will water the Holy lap?”. These are obvious in their agricultural connotations. In an interesting side note the word fuck is at one with, and comes from, the medieval fork (of Indo-European origin) or plough (Taylor, 1996). In other words to fuck is to plough or furrow. The image of the female earth mound being entered and sown by the male ploughing penis would have been a vivid image for ancient goddess centred Neolithic farming communities.
Ancient Greek prostitutes were divided into several categories. The pornai were found at the lower echelons of the social scale. In Classical Greece the pornai had been captured slaves of barbarian origin, even though sacred prostitution was not known on the same scale as the ancient Near East. In ancient Greece and Anatolia the term hierodule meant ‘temple’ or ‘female slave’. The temple slave in the service of a specific deity has often been misinterpreted as implying religious prostitution, which was excused on the basis that the sexual service provided was in honour of the deity. Heterae were courtesans who were educated and sophisticated companions. Most engaged in sexual relations with their patrons who did not function simply as prostitutes. Heterae should not be confused with the pornai of the time, who sold sex by the act for recompense and who worked on the streets or out of brothels (Hamel, 2003). Heterae therefore must not be conflated with pornai or prostitutes, or with mistresses known as the pallakide, nor with actual wives who were termed gynaekes. Ancient Greek heterae are similar to the Babylonian naditu. As sex and sexuality in Greek culture evolved these courtesans became inclined to maintain a fashionable appearance and eventually and keep up with business. Cultured socially elite Athenian women eventually infused the styles of the hetarae into popular Greek life and culture. Athenian women learned to imitate and refine the styles of the prostitute, including removal of pubic hair, the stylised application and adoption of the manner of dress of the hetarae (Garrison, 2000). The original meaning of the word ‘prostitute’ was to stand on behalf of, that is to represent the power of the goddess. This is why the ishtartu were forbidden to marry in the connubial sense and instead were dedicated to the Rite of Sacred Marriage. Sacred sexual intercourse, if and when it occurred, it occurred took place in the temples of Inanna and Ishtar and was an important and common form of sacred sexuality practised in ancient Mesopotamia. The rite was believed to invigorate the land with divine fertile energy. For this reason the temple priestess took the title of Hierodule of Heaven or Servant of the Holy (Marvelly, 2005
Square and Compasses joined together is an allegory of Sacred Sexuality of the Rite of Sacred Marriage.
Morals and Dogma: Consistory: XXXII. Sublime of the Royal Secret pg. 850-51
The SQUARE, therefore, is a natural and appropriate Symbol of this Earth and the things that belong to it, are of it, or concern it. The Compass is an equally natural and appropriate Symbol of the Heavens, and of all celestial things and celestial natures.
The COMPASS, therefore, as the Symbol of the Heavens, represents the spiritual, intellectual, and moral portion of this double nature of Humanity; and the SQUARE, as the Symbol of the Earth, its material, sensual, and baser portion.
Mackey also wrote about this in his “Symbolism of Freemasonry”. Both Mackey and Pike note that the Hindus represent the solar male principle in nature by the phallus, while the earth female principle is represented by the yoni. The union between these opposing natural forces are exemplified in the symbol of Shiva copulating with Shakti, found in statues in many Hindu Temples.
It was the belief of both Pike and Mackey that the square and compass alluded to the same meaning. The sexual act has always been treated as a sacred mystery for this reason. Not only does it reflect the balance of Nature, but it produces new life, which is the Greater Mystery. We all know the mechanical process by which a new life is conceived, but the Mysteries deal with the spiritual process.
The Sexual Meanings of Masonic Symbols
Along with the Bible, or whatever “holy book” is employed in each particular Lodge, are two other “Great Lights” — the Square and the Compass. Together, these three comprise the “Furniture” of the Lodge.(7) Blue Lodge Masons are taught that the significance of the Square is to remind them of honesty in their dealings with other men as well as the necessity of defending the honor of the teachings and ceremonies of the Lodge.(8) The Compass, on the other hand, designates the “circumscription of the heart,” and serves to teach Masons to exercise temperance and the control of their desires.(9)
The Square represents the female (passive) generative principle, the earth, and the baser, sensual nature; and the Compass represents the male (active) generative principle, the sun/heavens, and the higher, spiritual nature. The Compass, arranged above the Square, symbolizes the (male) Sun, impregnating the passive (female) Earth with its life-producing rays. The true meanings, then are two fold: the earthly (human) representations are of the man and his phallus, and the woman with her receptive eteis (vagina). The cosmic meaning is that of the active Sun (deity, the Sun-god) from above, imparting life into the passive Earth (deity, the earth/fertility goddess) below and producing new life.(10)
Counterparts of these two deities can also be found in countless other occult-based world religions and traditions as well, all represented by the sun and the moon (and/or the earth).(13) These include Osiris and Isis in Egyptian mythology; Mahadeva, or Shiva, and Bhavani, or Kali in India; Dionysis and Rhea in Greek mythology.
The Male/Female Dualism of the Masonic Deity
In 1868, the Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Rite of Lusanne revealed the true identity of The ancient Greeks and Romans worshipped the Generative Principle under the symbol of the phallus. “Freemasonry proclaims as it has ever proclaimed from its origin, the existence of a Creative Principle, under the name of Great Architect of the Universe.”(28) Albert Pike further explained:
Albert Pike was certainly not alone in tracing the theology of Freemasonry back to the phallic worship of the pagan cults of the past. In his book Symbolism of Freemasonry, Albert Mackey also observed:
Phallus representation of the virile member [the male sex organ]… was venerated as a religious symbol very universally by the ancients. It was one of the modifications of sun-worship, and was a symbol of the fecundating [impregnating] power of that luminary.(30)
Elsewhere, Mackey wrote:
The Phallus was in imitation of the male generative organ. It was represented usually by a column which was surmounted by a circle at its base, intended for the eteis or female generative organ. This union of the phallus and the eteis… was intended by the ancients as a type of the prolific powers of nature which they worshipped under the united form of the active or male principle and the passive or female principle.(31)
In conclusion, Martin Wagner observed:
This creative or generative principle is that mysterious force or energy which renews the earth in springtime, and quickens all animated nature; that energy, force, or power which perpetually dying, renews itself in new, similar yet different forms…. This dynamic, procreative, productive power or energy in nature and especially in man maintaining a perpetual self-identity, Freemasonry conceives of as the divine nature, as the deity immanent in nature, and it is this life force or energy that it deifies, venerates and worships under the name of Great Architect of the Universe
This shows the Masonic Temple of King Solomon is a temple of the Goddesses with a Square (passive principle) attached to it.
WB Gab Comia as Worshipful Master MY 6014 representing King Solomon at the Temple of Goddess Inanna